Uses and Features of Hybrid Clubs

Just like in any sport, what you use in playing golf is vital to your success in the game. Obviously, golf clubs are the most important golfing equipment. You have to use the golf club that will provide you optimum precision and endurance. The shot it makes must not be too short. It should also not be too long for it may send ball into water hazards.

Different Types of Golf Clubs

You have to know these basic types of golf clubs, as well as their functions and features, to know which you should purchase. Hybrid clubs are the latest type of clubs.


Woods have large spherical heads with a slight bulging clubface. They also feature a flat bottom that slides over the ground during the stroke. Modern wood heads are made of titanium or hollow steel; others are filled with foam. Their shaft enters the wood off-center which makes the face of the wood roughly positioned at a right angle to its side.

Woods are generally used for the longest shots. You do not need a tee off the ground when playing with woods. 1-wood is called drivers. 7-woods, 9-woods, and 11-woods are great out of rough.


These are used for shorter shots, especially when the shot’s approaching the green. Irons range from 90 to 100 cm in length. The heads are usually solid with flat clubface. Iron lofts range from 16 to 60 degrees.

Long-irons and intermediate irons or those with lower loft are played from fairway. Those with higher loft are played from difficult ground and for approach shots. Handicap golfers use 1-irons and 2-irons; the loft of these irons make it difficult to get the ball airborne. Traditional iron sets consist of 3-irons to 9-irons.


These are irons with more than 50 degrees loft. There are different kinds of wedges. Sand wedges feature specialized undersides that make them appropriate for shots from the rough and from bunkers. Lob wedges have loft of 58 to 62 degrees high; they are used for shots from sand and for approach shots.


These clubs come in different head shapes. They have low lofts and short shafts. Putters are best used when playing the ball on the green. They are also useful for some approach shots and shots from bunkers.


Hybrid clubs have the best features of a long-iron and a fairway wood. They are designed specifically for distance control and accuracy of shot. Hybrids have larger heads than irons. They have shorter shafts that woods, making them easier to control. Hybrids have flat face and higher loft; these produce more spin, allowing the ball to stop faster and more accurately. The shots hybrids make are simple.

These clubs help golfers get their balls higher and farther compared to what could be achieved using irons. Long irons replaced with utility club designs to form a hybrid set is a perfect choice for beginners.

Uses of Hybrid clubs
•Off the Tee

Hybrids are perfect for long par 3’s and short par 4 tee shots. These clubs have lower center of gravity that helps launch the ball in the air. Through this, the ball comes down on a steeper angle and then, it will easily stop on the green.

•From the Fairway

These clubs are really great for a long approach shot to the green since they are excellent in distance control and accuracy. Hitting hybrids from the fairways will help you go for more par 5’s in 2.

•Around the Green

Hybrid clubsHybrids perform really well for “bump and run” shots around the green. By getting the ball rolling as fast as possible on the ground, they are able to eliminate any chance for error. You can also use these clubs like a putt to gain control; this helps eliminate chances of decelerating wedge shots.

•Out of Bunker

To enable a steeper angle of attack, you can move the ball in your stance. Hybrids, with their bigger heads and larger rudders, can be easily swung through the sand. When making shots out of bunker, the balls should be hit first. The ball has to be up in the air and out of the bunker quickly.

•From the Rough

Long irons get caught up when the shot is done from the rough, this causes the clubs to twist and produce mishits. Because hybrids have larger size and mass, it is easier for these clubs to drive from the rough. Hybrids also have rudders and rails on their bottoms that keep the face square.

The 24/38 Rule

Hybrid clubs are easier to hit with than long-irons, regardless if they have the same loft. With hybrids, the golf ball will also have a higher trajectory. The 24/38 rule will help you understand why. Golf club manufacturers have knowledge about this certain rule.

The rule says that most golfers have no ability to hit an iron consistently given that its length is 38 inches or more and its loft is 24 degrees or less. Most golfers cannot hit shots with any iron longer than 5-iron consistently.

The Vanishing Loft Phenomenon

Golfers who are playing over the years are most probably aware that the iron lofts have become lower. A modern 4-iron has settled into 23 to 24 degrees of loft. This is mainly due to the birth of hybrids. They were designed to fulfill what irons and woods cannot. Unlike irons, they are not difficult to hit. Unlike woods, hybrids don’t have difficult mechanics.

Rockbottomgolf offers new golf hybrids clubs and utility woods at discount prices.

An Overview of Printed Circuit Boards: Design and Assembly

Design and assembly are two of the main processes involved in the manufacture of PCBs. To get a clearer picture of what happens in each of these processes, read on below.


Back in the day, designing printed circuit boards was a totally manual process. Artwork generation was done on clear mylar sheets, oftentimes resulting to two to four times the desired size. First, the schematic diagram was converted into a layout of pins, pads and components. Next, traces were routed towards the necessary connections. Pre-printed grids helped in the layout, while rub-on dry transfers of usual circuit element arrangements helped in standardizing the layout. Self-adhesive tape was used to make traces. At the end, the layout “artwork” is reproduced photographically on resist layers of blank boards with copper-clad coating.

These days, however, the practice is a lot less labor intensive. Computers take most of the work, since they can perform a lot of the steps automatically.

Here are the steps included in the basic progression of common commercial designs for printed circuit boards:

1. An electronic design automation tool creates a schematic capture.

2. Depending on the required case and circuitry of the PCBs, the template and dimensions of the card are decided. During this step, the need for fixed components (together with heat sinks) is determined.

3. The layers of PCBs are decided – often one to twelve, depending on the complexity of the design. The power and ground plane are also determined. Here, signal planes are found in the top layer and in internal layers.

4. With the help of routing copper thickness, dialectic layer thickness and trace width, the line impedance is determined. In case there are differential signals, trace separation is also considered. To route signals, stripline, dual stripline or microstrip is used.

5. Next, the components are placed. The vias and lands are marked into place, all the while considering geometry and thermal factors.

6. Signal traces are routed. High frequency signals help ensure optimal EMI performance by being routed in internal layers, between ground or power planes.

7. Gerber file generation comes next as a part of the manufacturing process.

8. The final step in design involves the power plane acting as the counterpart of the ground plane. The power plane acts as an AC signal ground and provides DC voltage for circuits which are mounted on the PCBs. On the other hand, if using electronic design automation tools, the power and ground planes are often automatically drawn as a negative layer that have connections and clearances to the plane (which was also automatically created).


Printed circuit boardsAs the PCBs are finalized, the electronic components are attached, forming a working printed circuit assembly (PCA). For through-hole manufacturing, the leads of components are inserted through holes, thus the name. On the other hand, surface-mount manufacturing requires components to be placed on lands or pads found on the printed circuit boards’ outer surfaces. In either type of construction, the leads of components are both mechanically and electrically attached to the PCBs using a molten metal solder.

There are different ways of soldering used in PCBs. For creating a high volume of production, the surface-mount placement machinery, reflow ovens and bulk wave soldering are often employed. Meanwhile, for small volume production, experienced technicians are capable of soldering the tiniest parts by hand with the help of a microscope, a fine tip soldering iron, and some tweezers. A number of parts can be too difficult to work manually, including BGA packages.

As the printed circuit boards are finalized and done, they have to be tested in multiple ways. If they fail any of the tests, the technicians have to desolder them, and replace components that aren’t working. This is known as “rework”.

Where to Buy Instagram Followers

Scams are everywhere, even on the net.  There are 419 scams and fake Nigerian royalty, email spammers who sell cheap men’s performance enhancers, wily bots posing as alluring ladies looking for a little fling, and offers of anything free.  Tickets, video game consoles, and iPhones given for free are such strong come-ons today.  These scams use a technique called social engineering, which is basically a set of ways through which you can be fooled into doing something based on your current preferences.

instagramOne of the many forms of social engineering is your innate desire to get more followers on Instagram. Scammers prey on that desire, and will use it to ruin your Instagram account, your PC/smartphone, or worse, your life – without you knowing it.  You can buy Instagram followers and end up either in the heaven of fame and recognition or the hell of undesirability and infamy.

There are plenty of sites where you can buy Instagram followersnowadays. These sites fall into two categories: those that will legitimately raise the number of followers, and those that will fill the photo sharing network with nasty things such as fake bot followers that just blindly follow the whims of their unscrupulous masters.

Besides unethical SMO (social media optimization) concerns such as hashtag abuse, there is also the risk of malware plaguing your smartphone and/or PC. Some sites will unabashedly use social engineering techniques and will make you click the “buy” button while inviting a world of trouble. If the buy Instagram followers site asks for sensitive personal things such as your Instagram login information and credit card information, run far, far away.

phidhingA technique called phishing can be employed by those scammers – they will bring out a page that looks exactly like Instagram’s login page in order to fool you into thinking it is the real actual page before you can actually buy the followers you want. But look closely! There will be minor differences between the real login page and the fake one. One, the URLs will be different, even by one letter. Two, there will be intentional typos designed to fool your eyes (for example, o’s are 0’s; w’s are vv’s, etc.) Comparing legitimate sites and phishing sites will be like playing “spot the difference,” but will be worth your time and effort.

Trusting legitimate follower sellers can be a touch road to cross, but it can be done. Here are the following examples of scam sites that say “buy Instagram followers” but give you something else that can be detrimental to you, your site, and your business:

One app promises to give you free followers that are delivered via friend requests.  The requests are only seen when you set your Instagram account to private. Those requests will lead you to fake users who have photos of the apps they advertise; and when you click a photo, you will be led to a site where you can enter your username in order to finally download the supposed app. But what you are downloading is actually an Android malware, which leads you to ho-hum survey scam sites.

Another app dishes out the same promise, but is available on both iOS and Android. The app’s modus operandi is to ask for the username and password, which you should not do if you want to keep your social media accounts (and, by extension, all other accounts you own) free from harm. With that MO, hundreds and thousands of users were duped, and the app took Instagram for a ride by adding followers and likes, turning the unwillingly users into unwilling scam bots. Fortunately, the app was pulled out soon after it was discovered.